Suo - Mires and peat vol. 31 no. 1 | 1980

Leila Urvas. Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomen luonnontilaisten turpeiden viljavuuserot.
English title: Comparison of the chemical prperties of virgin peat soils in Southern and Northern Finland.
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Due to climatic differences, vegetational variation occurs even within the same mire types from southern to northern parts of Finland. Accordingly, geographical differences in fertility can be expected. This material was collected from 338 sites in South Finland and 468 sites in North Finland during the 1960s (Fig. 1). When sampling virgin peat soils in routine soil survey work, three samples were collected from each site; depths 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm. The pH (H2O) and acid ammonium acetate extractable Ca, K, and P were determined from all samples. In addition, N and humus percentages were determined from surface soil samples. The average pH (H2O) in different layers of Carex dominated peat soils was 0,1— 0,4 pH-units lower in South than in North Finland and the corresponding differences in Sphagnum dominated peat soils were 0,2—0,3 pH-units (Table 2). Average contents of ammonium acetate extractable potassium and especially calcium and phosphorus were higher in South than in North Finland. One reason for higher soluble nutrient contents in the South may be the lower pH in southern peat soils. Also the mineral subsoil underlaying the peat may have an effect on the fertility properties of the peats. In general, northern mineral soils are coarser in texture and poorer in nutrients than those in the South. The total nitrogen contents of Carex dominated peat soils were 21 per cent higher in northern than in southern peat soils and those of Sphagnum dominated peat soils 17 per cent higher. This may be partly due to the fact that within both peat types (Carex and Sphagnum) the composition of plant species responsible for peat formation varies from south to north. According to the differences in nitrogen contents, the C/N ratios, an index indicating the quality of peat, were smaller in the northern peat soils.
  • Urvas, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jouko Silvola. Rahkasuon kasvusta kaasunvaihtomittausten perusteella.
English title: Growth of Sphagnum fuscum bog on the basis of gas exchange measurements.
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The CO2-exchange of the Sphagnum fuscum — Empetrum nigrum community of a South Finnish raised bog was studied in the laboratory at different combinations of irradiance and temperature conditions during one growing season. The CO2-exchange of the community was divided into three components, namely those due to Empetrum nigrum, Sphagnum fuscum and peat, respectively. In the conditions used the maximum net CO2 exchange of Empetrum nigrum was c. 200 and that of Sphagnum fuscum c. 250 mg CO2 m-1 h-1. The total respiration in peat increased exponentially from 50 to 350 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 with increasing temperature from 5 to 30°C. On the basis of the laboratory measurements and of the data on actual field temperatures and irradiation the budget of organic matter for the community was simulated. The net production of 74 for Empetrum and 243 g (dw) m-2 for Sphagnum was predicted for six months period (May 1—Oct 31). The amount of peat decomposed was 233 (g (dw) m-2. The net result for the whole community was 84 g (dw) m-2. The average peat accumulation of the bog in question is c. 40 g (dw) m-2 yr-1. The difference depends most probably on the respiration in winter and on the decomposition of peat deeper than 17 cm, which were not included in simulation.
  • Silvola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Erkki Kivinen. Suoseuran 30-vuotisesta toiminnasta.
English title: Finnish peatland society - Suoseura - 30 years.
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The objects of Suoseura established on April 29, 1949, were general research of peatlands and peats and promoting their appropriate and economic utilization. The Society has at present about 600 members including experts in natural sciences, agriculture, forestry, representatives of peat industry, and peat experts in practice. The Society realizes its objects by arranging 6—8 meetings annually. At these meetings, the latest research results or improvements in peatland utilization are introduced. The lectures have most commonly discussed properties and classification of virgin peat and peatlands and their utilization in agriculture, horticulture, afforestation and peat industry. The most important lectures are published in the periodical of the Society, "Suo", which comes out in 4—6 numbers a year, in total about 100 pages. The lectures are usually published in Finnish with a summary in English. The Society also arranges annually excursions to objects of current interest in the home country and occasionally to neighbouring countries as well. Furthermore, members have lectured on their travel observations concerning peatlands of Europe, the United States and Canada and their utilization. The Finnish Peatland Society participates actively in the international cooperation in the field. It has established the IPS Finnish National Committee and its members attend actively international congresses and symposiums abroad and certainly in Finland. For facilitating international cooperation the Society published a Peat Land Terminology as early as in 1956. This publi-cation in German-Finnish-Swedish-English included about 250 peatland words. In 1972, the Society published a review of Finnish peatlands, "Finnish Peatlands and their Utilization"", 61 p. "
  • Kivinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Veli Pohjonen. Energiapajujen viljelystä vanhoilla turvetuotantoalueilla.
English title: On the energy willow farming on the old peat industry areas.
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By the end of this century the peat industry in Finland will leave an area of approximately 50 000 hectares behind, an area where the peat mining is over and the problems of further utilization must be solved. There is still a thin bottom peat layer left above the mineral soil. This layer of 30—50 cm bottom peat is a fertile growing media for different cultivated plants. First, as an environment it is exceptionally sterile. There are no weeds, no diseases, no insects. Secondly, the bottom peat is rich, much richer than the surface peat in nitrogen and in calcium. Moreover, the drainage is still in sufficient order after the last peat mining machines. As such, these old peat industry areas are suitable for energy production at a new level: using energy willows for energy farming. Fast growing energy willows have been studied in Finland since 1973. The energy yields have been promising, from 200 GJ to 400 GJ per hectare in a year (10—20 tn/ha dry matter). The main lines of the energy willow husbandry have been established. The most important part in it is fertilization. The fertilization of energy willow growing on old bottom peats is based on the use of ash and booster nitrogen. The yearly removal in a moderate (12 tn/ha dry matter) yield is 500—600 kg/ha ash and about 150 kg/ha nitrogen. The ash is circulated again and again between the energy plantation and the burning plant (for instance district heating unit). One part of the nitrogen is released from the peat resources through mobilization. The other part of nitrogen is given as booster for the early summer growth when the mobilization rate is low. When regarding the nutrient utilization efficiency, the yearly fertilizer need for the old peat industry area is estimated to be 100—150 kg/ha nitrogen and 1000—2000 kg/ha willow ash.
  • Pohjonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pekka Pakarinen, Kimmo Tolonen. Rikin huuhtoutuminen pintaturpeesta.
English title: Leaching of Sulphur from surface peat.
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Four ombrotrophic Sphagnum fuscum peat profiles (0—50 cm) were analyzed for total sulphur. The study sites include two bogs from southern Finland (Munasuo and Suurisuo, 60—61 °N) plus two bogs from northern Finland (Jänkävuopaja and Ah-venjärvenvuoma, 67°N). Sulphur was determined gravimetrically with BaSO4- method (Horwitz 1965). Sulphur concentrations and their vertical distributions are indicated in Figs. 2—3. In the top layer (0—20 cm) the S content is low, between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/g dry weight. In the southern Finnish sites, higher values were found near the transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions: in Munasuo at ca. 30 cm level and in Suurisuo at 45—50 cm level (Fig. 2). In northern Finnish sites, especially in Ahvenjärvenvuoma, the S concentrations of Sphagnum peat seem to be related to the dry volume weight (degree of humification) (Fig. 3), but further material will be needed to establish the commonness of "enrichment layer" of sulphur in these peats. The sulphur amounts per square meter for 0—20 cm and 20—50 cm layers are indicated in Table 1. In the 0—20 cm layer, which was in all sites weakly humified, it was possible to apply the moss dating method (Pakarinen & Tolonen 1977). Using the ages obtained for the top 20 cm layer (23 to 68 years), the annual accumulation rates of sulphur were found to range from 59 to 163 mg/m2 (Table 1). The estimated atmospheric sulphur deposition rates in the corresponding areas varied from 280 to 650 mg/m2 (according to data of Buch 1960, Haapala 1977, Järvi-nen 1978). Thus the retention % of S was estimated at 19 to 25 for the surface peat layer (0—20 cm), and it was concluded that the main part of the atmospheric S deposition is leached to deeper peat layers or more probably outside the mire ecosystem.
  • Pakarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tolonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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