Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'Estonia'

James Aber, Kiira Aaviksoo, Edgar Karofeld, Susan Aber. Patterns in Estonian bogs as depicted in color kite aerial photographs.
Avainsanat: bog; Estonia; Aerial photography; kite; infrared
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Kite aerial photography (KAP) was conducted at three bogs in east-central and southwestern Estonia to further investigate the possibilities of this technique for mire research. Color-visible and color-infrared photographs were acquired in all orientations with film and digital cameras. Individual objects can be identified in vertical photographs in the size range 10 to 30 cm, which allows for microstructural investigations. Color-visible photographs reveal distinct color and texture zones in the vegetation cover of bogs, and water pools form a strong contrast with emergent vegetation. The intricate patterns of emergent, floating and submerged vegetation are portrayed clearly, and the boundary is defined sharply between emergent and floating moss at pool margins. Distinct color and texture zones of plant cover represent specific vegetation communities. Color-infrared photographs depict active photosynthesis of floating and emergent moss (Sphagnum sp.) in narrow zones (1–2 m wide) at pool margins. The high level of photosynthesis in such narrow zones may have significant implications for development of bog morphology, biomass accumulation, methane emission, and other environmental factors. Numerous small water bodies are more abundant than anticipated and may be more common than is generally recognized on conventional airphotos or satellite images. Multi-view angle imagery displays considerable variations in reflectivity of bog cover materials for different viewing directions. Special lighting effects, such as sun glint and the hot spot, are more prominent in color-infrared pictures, because of darker shadows. Our field experience demonstrates that kite aerial photographs may provide a basis for microstructural mapping and analysis of complex bogs within a multi-scale approach to mire investigations.
  • Aber, Earth Science Department, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas 66801 U.S.A. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aaviksoo, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Karofeld, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Aber, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
James Aber, Susan Aber. Leijailmakuvausmenetelmän käyttömahdollisuudet soiden kartoituksessa - esimerkkejä Viron soilta.
English title: Potential of kite aerial photography for peatland investigations with examples from Estonia.
Avainsanat: peatland; Estonia; Remote Sensing; kite aerial photography
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Kite aerial photography (KAP) involves the use of large kites to lift camera rigs 50–150 m above the ground. Various types of radio-controlled, single- and dual-camera systems may be employed to acquire images in visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. KAP has many advantages for peatland research, including: high portability, rapid setup and operation, small crew, range of suitable weather and site conditions, high-resolution images, and low cost of equipment and operation. On this basis, KAP could be utilized for multitemporal imagery throughout the growing season and from year to year to document study sites. Kite aerial photography at Endla Nature Reserve in Estonia demonstrates the potential of this method for acquiring useful images in vertical and oblique orientations. Sun glint in oblique views (toward the sun) can highlight the presence of water bodies regardless of water depth or turbidity. Color-infrared KAP would be especially useful for separating different types of vegetation cover and water bodies in peat bogs. Kite aerial photography could represent one level of observation in a multistage and multitemporal approach that involves ground study, conventional aerial photographs, and satellite imagery.
  • Aber, Earth Science, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, 66801 U.S.A. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aber, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Rein Veski, Orru Mall. Viron soiden kemiallinen tutkimus.
English title: Chemical investigation of Estonian peat.
Avainsanat: peat chemistry; Estonia; peat technology
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Peat, alongside with oil shale, is one of the most important national energy resources of Estonia. Some 9836 peatlands cover 22.3 per cent of the Estonian territory. Peat resources exceed 2.37 billion tons. The chemical composition of Estonian peat was studied as early as in the 1920's. At the end of the 1930's some experiments on peat coking were carried out. Later on the chemical content of peat was studied by the Geological Survey of Estonia. An experimental plant for producing fodder yeast has been established, and attempts made to extract growth stimulators from peat. An experimental plant for the production of activated coal is under construction. Key words: Estonia, peat chemistry, peat technology
  • Veski, Peat Info Ltd., Söpruse 233-48, EE0034 Tallinn, Estonia Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mall, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Martin Zobel. Viron suot ja niiden käyttö.
English title: Estonian mires and their utilization.
Avainsanat: succession; Classification; vegetation; Nature conservation; Estonia
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In this paper, the mire classification system and its development in Estonia are reviewed. In addition the utilization of mires for peat harvesting, forestry, agriculture and conservation are outlined. There are two main groups of mires in Estonia — an eastern and a western type. Mire vegetation has been classified according to site conditions, community composition and structure. During the primary succession of mire communities, a number of fen communities converge to a smaller number of bog communities. The post-drainage succession is also convergent. Estonian mires are intensively utilized for peat harvesting. There is a clear need for a comprehensive mire protection and utilization plan. Keywords: Classification, Estonia, nature conservation, succession, vegetation
  • Zobel, Department of Botany and Ecology, Tartu University, Lai St. 40, Tartu, Estonia Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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