Suo - Mires and peat 36 (1985)

Olli Lehto, Marketta Tuhkanen, Ryoshi Ishiwatari, Minoru Uzaki. Suomalaisen Sphagnum-turpeen hajotus- ja hapetustuotteiden kvantitatiivinen kaasukromatografinen analyysi.
English title: Quantitative gas chroma­tographic analysis of degradation and oxidation products from a Finnish Sphagnum peat.
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A sample of Finnish Sphagnum peat and its humic fractions (humin, humic acid and fulvic acid) were oxidized by alkaline CuO and KMnO4 methods and degraded by NaOH hydrolysis and KOH fusion. The oxidation and degradation products were analyzed quantitatively by high resolution gas chromatography. The results revealed that (1) "lignin" constituents of the peat and peat humic fractions are predominantly p-hydroxyl units which are not typical lignin units; (2) the degree of humification of the peat is low; and (3) a close relation is present among m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-hydroxyacetophenone as the degradation products of peat and peat humic fractions.
  • Lehto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tuhkanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Ishiwatari, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Uzaki, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Pirkko Selin, Timo Nyrönen. Turpeen käytön soveltuvuus jätehuollossa.
English title: Some applications of the use of peat in waste handling: a review.
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The water retention capacity, porosity and cation exchange properties of peat have been effectively utilized, for example, in modern greenhouse horticulture. However, these properties make peat also a suitable material for handling problem environmental wastes. It is also easily available and relatively cheap. Treated or untreated peat can be used in several waste handling applications, including litter for cattle, horse, chicken, fox or mink, as a treatment system for the water purification plants or the fish farms, together with the wastes from the composting process. The porous structure and the absorption capability can also be utilized to absorb oil contaminated waters.
  • Selin, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Nyrönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. Männynversosyöpätuhot Laaviosuon jat-kolannoituskoealueella.
English title: Damage caused by Pine die-back (Ascocalyx abietina) on refertilization trial plots on Laaviosuo, Lammi, southern Finland.
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Damage caused by the pathogenic fungus Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerb.) Schläpfer was more common and severe on the trial plots which had been refertilized with NPK or NPK + trace elements than on control or those plots which had been refertilized with wood ash or only some of the macro-nutrients. The incidence of damage was also positively correlated with the density and the mean height growth. It was hypothesized that delayed hardening of shoots in the autumn and frost damage combined with the increased growth and possible micronutrient deficiencies could explain these differences.
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Kerttu Härkönen. Soiden metsätaloudellista luokittelua Albertassa.
English title: Classifying peat-lands for forest drainage and growth in Alberta.
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The interest in peatland forestry in Alberta, Canada, was indicated by two scholarships for Finnish foresters, to conduct a pilot study on peatland classification for forestry purposes. The aim was to combine vegetation, water and peat chemistry and tree growth data into a "site type" classification. The study areas were predominantly nutrient-rich fens; however, some differences in the potential for forest growth after drainage were found.
  • Härkönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jouko Sippola, Raimo Erviö, Tauno Tares. Maa-ja neulasanalyysit havupuiden kasvun kuvaajina.
English title: Soil and needle analyses as indicators of tree growth.
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A comparison of soil and needle chemical analysis in describing tree growth was made using correlation analysis. Nutrient contents in the soil were poorly correlated with tree growth on mineral soils, while needle analysis was found to be more useful in tracing nutrient deficiences. Plant nutrient contents in the poor types of peat studied correlated rather closely with pine growth but the nutrient contents of needles did not explain the variation in growth to the same degree. This indicates that soil testing may be useful when tracing nutrient deficiences on poor peat soils. On mineral soils, instead, needle analysis may be preferable.
  • Sippola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Erviö, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Tares, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Juhani Päivänen. Soiden hyväksikäytöstä Saksan demokraattisessa tasavallassa.
English title: Peatland utilization in German Democratic Republic.
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The paper discusses the nature of peatlands, peatland utilization and the research activity in this field in the German Democratic Republic. The discussion is based partly on literature and partly on a study tour the author took to the GDR in August 1984. A report in English delivered over to the Academy of Finland and the Academy of Science in the GDR who financed the trip is available at request from the author.
  • Päivänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Leila Urvas. Viljelyn vaikutus turpeen ravinnepitoisuuteen.
English title: Effect of cultivation on the nutrient status of peat soils.
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Various effects of cultivation on the properties of peat soils included an increase in the bulk density of top soil. Rises of pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg were attributed to liming. Increases in the available contents of other macro- and micronutrients due to fertilization and other cultivation practices were most substantial in the topsoil but also reached the deeper soil horizons. In the cases of most nutrients the original trophy of the peat was still distinguishable after several years of cultivation.
  • Urvas, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Ilkka Koivisto. Kokemuksia Wally Creek-metsänojitusprojektista Pohjois-Ontariossa, Kanadassa.
English title: The Wally Creek Area Forest Drainage Experiment in nort­heastern Ontario, Canada.
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The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Canadian Forestry Service (Great Lakes Forest Research Centre) are jointly beginning operational peatland drainage trials for forestry purposes. An area of 410 ha, about 26 km east of Cochrane in northern Ontario, has been chosen. It will be drained during 1984—85 and will serve as a demonstration of the operational potential of draining peatland sites.
  • Koivisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juhani Päivänen. Soiden metsätaloudellisista käyttömahdollisuuksista Kanadassa.
English title: Potential of peatlands for forest drainage in Canada.
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Estimations of the peatland area in Canada vary from 110 to 170 mill, hectares depending on the definition. Most of the peatlands are situated in the cool and humic boreal zone. The potential of peatlands for wood production especially in Newfoundland, Alberta and Ontario after amelioration (drainage, fertilization, afforestation) are discussed based on literature and several visits to these provinces.
  • Päivänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
John K. Jeglum. Metsätaloudellisen suokasvupaikkaluokittelun nykytilanne Ontariossa.
English title: The status of peatland site classification for forestry in Ontario.
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Wetland site classification for forestry in Ontario is reviewed. The main units of a physiognomic-dominance scheme are portrayed in an environmental model, and research and inventory work using this approach is reviewed. Some common wetland terms used in Ontario are defined and discussed. The results of the Forest Ecosystem Classification (FEC) program are presented, for those operational groups that include peatland forests. Recent analyses of wooded peatlands in Ontario have revealed the relationships of the FEC types to the earlier defined wetland units. Some quantitative data are given to characterize tree growth, site, and vegetation. Recent silvicultural, remote sensing and inventory applications which utilize the main wetland units are reviewed.
  • Jeglum, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Tuomo Kuitunen, Markku Kuitunen. Uhanalaiset suoputkilokasvilajit Luopioisten Kurkisuon kasvillisuudessa.
English title: Endangered mire vascular plant species in the vegetation of the Kurkisuo-mire in southern Finland.
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The main purpose of this paper is to discuss which plant species are endangered in the present mire vegeration in southern Finland. The work was realized using a 155 ha large, widely variable area of mire as an example. We compared the number of observed species in different abundance and distribution (frequency) classes and tried to identify the essential properties to describe a typical endangered species with the aid of three different niche characteristics: 1. trophic status, 2. depth to water table, and 3. mire margin — mire expanse -effect. For indicator values we have consulted earlier ecological literature. If we reject upland forest species, which accidentally appear in the mirevegetation, only species with a local scarce distribution were interpreted as endangered. The list of endangered species was broadly similar to earlier, subjectively composed lists. Most of the endangered plant species were associated with mesotrop-hic sites, on lawn or flark levels and with a mire expanse -effect.
  • Kuitunen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kuitunen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Sylvi Soini. Saraturpeen ja timotein kivennäisainepitoisuudet Suomessa.
English title: Mineral element contents of Carex peat soils and Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) in Finland.
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The lay crop production of Carex peat soils in northern Finland seem to have decreased during the last ten years. The same is not true for southern Finland or any other soil type. The data from 2000 soil and Timothy grass samples, collected by Finnish Academy (1974), has been reworked in order to establish any differences between southern and northern Finland. The data consists of easily soluble contents of Ca, K, P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Na, Ni, Cr, Sr, Al and Pb. There was a clear increase in the content of many mineral elements towards the north in moraine and coarser fine sand and especially in Timothy grass contents. In contrast, 2/3 of the mineral element contents in Carex peat soils decreased northwards even though contents in Timothy grass increased. Timothy grass seems able to take up more mineral elements when growing in the long days of northern latitudes than in short days of the south. This effect is most marked in the case of Carex peat soils. Mineral element availability in Carex peat soils in North Finland therefore deserves further research.
  • Soini, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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