Suo - Mires and peat 39 (1988)

Keijo Lehtonen, Martti Ketola, Kirsti Haihu, Kalevi Pihlaja. Maatumisen vaikutus rahka- ja saraturpeista orgaanisilla liuottimilla uuttautuvan aineksen koostumukseen.
English title: Effect of humification on the composition of the solvent-extractable matter in Sphagnum and Carex peats.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; Carex; humification; peat lipids
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Solvent-extractable matter of Sphagnum (S) and Carex (C) peats of different degrees of humification (S, H2-H8; C, H3-H8) were isolated, saponified and analyzed. The C peat material was found to contain more extract than the S peat (C, 9.3%; S, 5.9%, on average). In both peat series the extract content increased with increasing degree of humification. In both peats the unsaponifiable, non-volatile polymeric matter comprised the biggest part, nearly one half on average, of the saponified extracts, which also were analyzed for their lipid components and other volatile materials. These fractions accounted for over one third and nearly one fifth, respectively. The total amounts of all these three categories generally increased, as did those of the individual lipid groups, with increasing humification. However, the relative minimum of the polymers and the relative maximum of the analyzed lipid compounds were found in the samples of H4 in both peat series. Fatty and ω-hydroxy acids were the most abundant lipid groups, together accounting for 70-90% of the analyzed lipids. Sterols and 1-alkanols were clearly more abundant in the S peat. The relative amounts of the lipid groups did not show a distinct dependence on the degree of humification in either peat series. The individual lipid group compositions of both peat types were very similar although some exceptions were found. Keywords: Carex , humification, peat lipids, Sphagnum
  • Lehtonen, Department of Chemis­try, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Ketola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Haihu, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Pihlaja, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Atte Korhola. Espoon keidassoiden luonteesta ja kehityksestä — esimerkkinä Nupurilan Kotasuo.
English title: On the character and develop­ment of the raised bogs in Espoo, Southern Finland — exemplified by the Kotasuo bog.
Avainsanat: mire types; Cladoceran stratigraphy; mire evolution; mire stratigraphy; terrestrialization
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Present character and natural history of 13 raised bogs in Espoo, S. Finland were studied by means of morphological, ecological and palaeo-eco-logical methods including 11 radiocarbon datings. Special attention was paid to the hydroseral development of Kotasuo bog by using plant and Cladoceran remains in the interpretation of ancient lake basins terrestriali-zation. The bogs were divided into three morphological groups according to their gross morphological (Grossform) features. The main type of mire formation was showed to be terrestrialization. Filling-in of the ancient lake basins was most common during the late boreal and early subboreal periods. The first mire type in Kotasuo was floristically rich, luxurious Phrag-mites-Typha-Carex fen. Keywords: Cladoceran stratigraphy, mire evolution, mire stratigraphy, mire types, terrestrialization
  • Korhola, Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, Hallituskatu 11, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Antti Reinikainen. Metsäojitettujen soiden kasvupaikkaluokituksen suunnanhakua.
English title: The need of improving the site classification of mires drained for forestry.
Avainsanat: Drainage; succession; mire classification; site type
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A review of the historical development of mire site classification in Finland with special emphasis on the studies and theories of post-drainage succession is made. Some criticism of the prevailing classification system is presented and a work model for guiding further study of drained mire classification is proposed. Preliminary results of a new approach to classify the vegetation of old peatland forests using TWINSPAN classification and DCA ordination techniques are presented. Keywords: Drainage, mire classification, site type, succession
  • Reinikainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Department of Peatland Forestry, P.O. Box 18, SF-01301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hannu Salo. Kaivukoneiden ajankäyttö ja tuottavuus metsäojituksessa.
English title: Time consumption and productivity of excavators in forest drainage.
Avainsanat: Digger; ditching; effective time; excavator; operation time
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The distribution of effective time, output and work quality of three medium-sized excavators were observed in a time study. The distribution of operation time and productivity were included in a follow-up study. Digging time varied between 81-91%. Average availability was 85% and the productivity/operation time 157 m/h during ditch digging. The corresponding values during ditch cleaning were 89% and 221 m/h. Keywords: Digger, ditching, effective time, excavator, operation time
  • Salo, Pappilantie 2, SF-60550 Nurmo, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kaisu Aapala, Aira Kokko. Ojituksen vaikutuksesta soiden kenttäkerroksen kasvilajeihin.
English title: Changes in the ground vegetation of drained mires.
Avainsanat: Drained mires; ground vegetation change; Rubus chamae-morus; succession
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The aim of this research was to study how some species of mire plants with differing ecological characteristics react to environmental changes caused by drainage. The data has been collected from 254 sample plots, each 1 km2 in area, in the southern and middle part (60-66°N) of Finland during the years 1984-1986. The occurrence of each species was studied both in virgin and in drained peatlands, and the note about mire type and drainage succession stage were recorded. For cloudberry (Rubus chamae-morus), the abundance of vegetation and berries were also indicated. There is a clear decline in the appearance of sedge plants as the succession, caused by ditching proceeds. Of herbs, Athyrium filix-femina and Cirsium palustre, become more common after drainage, but the flark level species, Drosera anglica and Lysimachia thyrsiflora disappear. As the drainage proceeds there is a clear decline in the vegetation and berry production of cloudberry. On the most effectively drained peatlands, more than half of the observations of cloudberry vegetation and all the observations of berry produce, indicated scanty growth and crop. The most abundant vegetation and yield of berries occurred in virgin peatlands. Keywords: Drained mires, ground vegetation change, Rubus chamae-morus, succession
  • Aapala, University of Oulu, Department of Botany, Linnanmaa, SF-90570 Oulu Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kokko, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jouko Silvola. Ojituksen ja lannoituksen vaikutus turpeen hiilen vapautumiseen ja ravinteiden mineralisoitumiseen.
English title: Effect of drainage and fertilization on carbon output and nutrient mineralization of peat.
Avainsanat: fertilization; Drainage; Carbon balance; nutrient mineralization; peat decomposition
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Carbon dioxide production increased to 2-3 fold from the peat of an oligotrophic sedge pine mire (VSR) after draining had lowered the water table to a depth c, 0.5 m. At two other sites, a mesotrophic sedge pine mire (RhSR) and a spruce swamp (MK), both the fall in the groundwater table and the increase in C02 production were smaller. At the VSR site, the fast-dissolving PK fertilizer and urea each caused a rapid increase while the slow-dissolving PK fertilizer a slow increase in soil respiration. The greatest, steady increase was achieved by treatment with wood ash. At RhSR and MK sites, the use of fertilizers generally led to a decline in soil respiration for 1-2 years, after which the initial level was normally regained. According to a simulation of the C02 production after drainage, the annual decomposition of peat was calculated to be c. 1 000 g (organic matter) m-2 in the VSR site. On the basis of this decomposition rate, the annual amount of nitrogen mineralizated was estimated to be c. 100 kg ha-1 and that of phosphorus c. 5 kg ha-1. Peat contains only a small amount of potassium, and the decomposition of old peat layers increases the amount of soluble potassium in peat very little. Keywords: Carbon balance, drainage, fertilization, nutrient mineralization, peat decomposition
  • Silvola, Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Erkki Ahti, Kimmo Paarlahti. Ravinteiden huuhtoutuminen talvella lannoitetulta metsäojitusalueelta.
English title: Leaching of nutrients from a peatland area after fertilizer application on snow.
Avainsanat: fertilization; phosphorus; peatland; leaching
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Runoff from 16 artificial minibasins was sampled after fertilizer application before snowmelt in March and after it in May. Extremely high concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and ammonium were observed during the snowmelt period in April. Key words: fertilization, leaching, peatland, phosphorus
  • Ahti, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Department of Peatland Forestry, P.O. Box 18,01301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Paarlahti, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Seppo Eurola, Kaisu Aapala, Aira Kokko. Ojitustilanne Etelä- ja Keski-Suomen sekä Pohjanmaa-Kainuun alueella.
English title: A survey of peat-land drainage activity in southern and central Finland.
Avainsanat: Drainage; Finland; mire types; peatland
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The results of a survey of 254 random sample plots, each 1 km2 in area and covering 1 543 km of mire transect line are reported. 74% of the peat-land encountered were drained with open ditch networks for forestry purposes. Of those 19% were classified as recently drained, 66% as transitional, 10% as transformed peat-moor peatlands, and 5% as being under the influence of nearby drainage. Drainage activity had been most often carried out on spruce mires, pine bogs, combination types, and rich fens and to a lesser extent on poor fens/bog hollows. The nutrient status and peat thickness had been taken into account only to a limited extent although ombrotrophic peatlands had been drained to a lesser extent than rich peatlands. There was an increasing tendency to extend drainage activities to thick, ombrotrophic mire types. 17% of peatland under the influence of drainage (750 000 ha) are unsuitable for forestry purposes. Considered within each unsuitable mire type more than 50% of their area is drained. Keywords: Drainage, Finland, mire types, peatland
  • Eurola, Department of Botany, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, SF-90570 Oulu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aapala, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Kokko, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Seppo Kaunisto. Metsäojitettujen turvemaiden ravinnevaroista ja niiden riittävyydestä.
English title: On nutrient amounts and their sufficiency for wood production on drained peatlands.
Avainsanat: fertilization; peat nutrient stores; potassium; transformed mires
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Generally in peat soils but especially in the old forest drainage areas the amount of potassium is low compared with that of nitrogen (ab. 1:100) and phosphorus (ab. 1:4). However, the amount of potassium fixed in tree biomass is about four times the amount of phosphorus. When estimating the future sufficiency of potassium for wood production in old drainage areas after one rotation (drainage 75 years earlier), it seems that on nitrogen-rich deep-peat pine mires potassium stores become exhausted during the second rotation after drainage if potassium is not applied. Key words: Fertilization, peat nutrient stores, potassium, transformed mires
  • Kaunisto, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, SF-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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