Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'agriculture'

Florence Renou, Tom Egan, David Wilson. Tutkimuksia suonpohjien jälkikäyttömahdollisuuksista Irlannissa.
English title: Tomorrow's landscapes: studies in the after-uses of industrial cutaway peatland in Ireland.
Avainsanat: agriculture; Biomass; restoration; cutaway peatlands; forestry; wetland creation
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With the cessation of industrial peat harvesting, there is an opportunity to create new landscapes that can confer both socio-economic and ecological benefits. This paper reviews over 50 years of study in the after-use potential of industrial cutaway peatlands in Ireland. The options for after-use are determined to a large extent by the residual peat type, hydrological constraints, geographic location and economic considerations. Over the years, the main areas of investigation have included commercially driven options such as agriculture, forestry, and biomass production, as well as the more ecological and environmental options such as dryland recolonisation and wetland creation/restoration. In that time, the emphasis has continually changed as new research has emerged, in turn directing and shaping decision-making. By 2050, around 80000 ha of harvested peatlands will have become available for other uses. As such, a coherent post-harvesting strategy, underpinned by previous and future research, is essential in order to maximise the potential of these new ecosystems.
  • Renou, School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dubline, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Egan, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Wilson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markku Yli-Halla. Pitääkö kaikkein happamimmat sulfaattimaat poistaa viljelystä?
English title: Should the cultivation of the most acidic sulphate soils be stopped?
Avainsanat: agriculture; Drainage; acidity; sulphur; sulphate soils
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Estimates of the area of cultivated acid sulphate soils in Finland range from 50,000 ha to 336,000 ha. In these soils, sulfides are oxidized to sulphuric acid upon aeration, which is promoted by drainage. Agricultural use of these soils requires abundant liming. Acidic drainage waters impact the aquatic life negatively. Early research concentrated on the agricultural utilization of acid sulphate soils while more recently environmental aspects have been emphasized. Controlled drainage, aiming at a high water table, is considered an option for the management of acidity. Owing to evapotranspiration, however, sulfidic layers may be exposed to oxidation every summer in spite of controlled drainage. Successful submerging of sulfidic layers may require pumping of water to the field from outside sources. Abandoning the most acidic sulphate soils and stop draining them would prevent further oxidation of sulfides. This is a sensitive issue, because the farmland is private property. Moreover, it is not exactly known where the most acidic sulphate soils are located and how their abandonment would impact the quality of water in recipient rivers.
  • Yli-Halla, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jyrki Hytönen, Antti Wall. Metsitettyjen turvepeltojen ja viereisten suometsien ravinnemäärät.
English title: Nutrient amounts of afforested peat fields and neighbouring peatland forests.
Avainsanat: agriculture; afforestation; mires; nutrients
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Chemical and physical characteristics of afforested peat fields were compared with those of neighbouring peatland forests, i.e. naturally forested peatland sites drained to improve forest growth. Six study sites were selected with such sites located alongside an afforested peat field. On three of the fields, mineral soil had been added during cultivation as a soil amelioration agent. Most of the fields had been cultivated for 15–20 years before afforestation. Volumetric soil samples were taken and analysed for their total and ammonium acetate extractable nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn). Kjeldahl N and B in H3PO4–H2SO4 were also analysed. The soil layers 0–20 cm (the field cultivation depth) and 20–40 cm were compared. The physical and chemical characteristics of the top soil in peat fields and neighbouring forests differed in many respects even after 25 years had passed since their afforestation. Bulk density, ash content and pH of the peat were higher in the cultivation layer of the fields than in the corresponding layer in peatland forests. In cases where mineral soil had been added to the peat fields, the amounts of P, K, Ca, Mn and Zn were higher in the 0–20 cm soil layer whereas the amounts of N and B did not significantly differ from those in the soils of peatland forests. The differences in the amounts of extractable nutrients between the field soils and forests soils were smaller; Ca and (when mineral soil had been added) also Fe and Zn concentrations were higher in the peat field soils than in the soils of peatland forests.
  • Hytönen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O.Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Wall, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
André-Jean Francez, Jean-Jacques Bignon, Anne-Marie Mollet. Ranskan suot ja niiden käyttö.
English title: The peatlands in France: localization, characteristics, use and conservation.
Avainsanat: agriculture; bog; peat utilization; fen
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We find in France two main peatlands-types: topogenous Carex-fens, in the north and east of the country, and ombrogenous Sphagnum-bogs, in the medium montanes. In total, there are about 100 000 ha peatlands which correspond to a volume of 2 x 109 m3. The amount of extracted peat in France was, in the eighties, 200 000 t (dry matter). Peat is essentially used as fuel or, mixed with German or Soviet peat, as soilless substrates. The fens of the floodplains have long been used for market gardening (tradition of 'hortillonnages' in Amiens or Bourges). Two national surveys were made during energy crises, during the Second World War and at the end of the 1970s following the oil shortage. The law of July 1976 on the preservation of the countryside lists 19 peatlands plant species that are nationally protected. Ten peatlands have been classified as nature reserves and two projects are in preparation. Keywords: agriculture, bog, fen, peat utilization
  • Francez, C.ER.E.M.CA., rue du Tisserand, Rouil-las-Bas, F-63 970 Aydat, France Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Bignon, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Mollet, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Gerd Lüttig. Soiden hyödyntämisen historiasta Euroopassa, erityisesti Saksassa.
English title: History of the utilization of peatlands in Europe with spe­cial reference to Germany.
Avainsanat: agriculture; Historical review; horticulture; mire utilization
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From pre-christian times peatland-use and attitudes towards peatlands in Germany have changed to a great extent. Agricultural use of the inhospitable peat bog terrain only developed after the fertile soil regions had been conquered in the so-called struggle for food production. Use for fuel production never reached the amount of peatland used for agriculture, and with the use of peat as a horticultural ameliorator at the beginning of this century, only a small portion of the peat area has been touched and is not larger than the area under nature conservation. With these changes, attitudes about the associated environmental impact have shifted enormously at the same time. Key words: Agriculture, historical review, horticulture, mire utilization
  • Lüttig, Chair of Applied Geology, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Schloßgarten 5, D-8520 Erlangen, BRD Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Reijo Heikkilä. Soiden maataloudellinen merkitys nyt ja tulevaisuudessa.
English title: Peatlands in Finnish agriculture now and in the future.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peat soil; peatlands; peat cultivation
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While approximately 10% of agriculture in Finland is still carried out on peat soils, the area involved is decreasing faster than the area of mineral soils. However, the large reserve of peatlands in Finland may become important in the future for agricultural production as a result of global climatic warming which would move the best agricultural areas northwards. Keywords: Agriculture, peat cultivation, peat soil, peatlands
  • Heikkilä, Society of Peat Cultivation, Karelia Research Station, SF-82600 Tohmajärvi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Arvi Valmari. Suot sodanjälkeisessä asutustoiminnassa.
English title: Peatlands in the postwar colonization.
Avainsanat: agriculture; colonization; peatland cultivation
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After the Second World War appreciable areas of land in Finland were cleared for cultivation to replace cultivated fields lost in the war, in order to reach self-sufficiency in food production and to satisfy the need for land. The clearance of unproductive fens in northern Finland enabled the preservation of an equivalent area of productive forest in the central and southern parts of the country. One hectare of forest saved in this way can be estimated to have produced 160 m3 of wood from 1949 to the present time. The colonization of Salla district in northern Finland is discussed in detail. The area of cultivated land increased by a factor of 12.3 during 1945-1969. The clearance remained unfinished, however, so that only a few of the farms reached the planned size and settlement remained smaller than intended. Nevertheless, information to date does not give any indication of cattle being given up any more rapidly on the colonization farms than on the old farms. The area of peatland as a part of the whole cultivation has decreased but peat is still an essential feature in the agriculture of Lapland. The abundant supply of humus throughout the land is largely due to the peat. The greenhouse effect could increase the value of the northern peatlands. Keywords: Agriculture, colonization, peatland cultivation
  • Valmari, Mäkiranta 2-4B 9, SF-96400 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. Suonviljely ja soiden luonnonkasvien hyödyntäminen Neuvosto-Karjalassa.
English title: Use of mires for agricultural, berry and medical plant production in Soviet Karelia.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peatland utilization; berry production; medical plants; Soviet Union
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The utilization of mires and some recent research results carried out in Soviet Karelia (ASSR), USSR are discussed. There are 3.5 million ha of peatlands and 1.7 million ha of paludified forests. Some 78 000 ha of drained peatlands are used for cultivation of forage and vegetable crops and there are plans to increase this amount. Some 38 000 ha of virgin peatlands have been preserved for berry production (Vaccinium oxycoc-cos, Rubus chamaemorus). The cultivation of cranberry has also been studied. Karelian peatlands are also used as resources of medicinally important plants: e.g. Me-nyanthes trifoliata, Ledum palustre, Potentilla palustris, Droseraspp., Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Key words: peatland utilization, agriculture, berry production, medical plants, Soviet Union.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00I70 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Leila Urvas. Timotein (Phleum pratense) sinkkipitoisuus turvemaalla.
English title: The zinc content of timothy (Phleum pratense) grown on peat soil.
Avainsanat: Phleum pratense; zinc content; agriculture; peat soil; P/Zn
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The zinc contents of timothy grown on peat soils generally low in zinc were considerably raised by zinc fertilization, even when applied at the low rate of 550 g Zn/ha, in combination with other micronutrients. On peat soil groups with average extrac-table zinc contents of 0,60, 1,40 and 7,22 mg/1 the mean zinc contents of timothy before fertilization were 25,6, 27,1 and 28,9 and after fertilization 28,6, 34,8 and 36,4 mg/kg D.M., respectively. The corresponding increases were 11, 28 and 26 per cent. In general, the zinc contents of timothy in this study did not differ essentially from those measured elsewhere in Finland. Key words: Phleum pratense, zinc content, agriculture, peat soil, P/Zn.
  • Urvas, Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Soil Science, SF-3J600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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