Suo - Mires and peat 38 (1987)

Martti Aho. Turpeen pyrolyysistä.
English title: Pyrolysis of peat.
Avainsanat: air pollution; pyrolysis. peat
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The release of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in peat pyrolysis was investigated bet ween 300 and 700 °C. Seven peats with different nitrogen and sulphur contents (N: 0.8—2.9 %, S: 0.08—0.24 %) were studied. The pyrolysis was studied indirectly by following the elemental composition and the structure of the char residue. The tars of one peat sample were trapped. The greatest portion of the sulphur-containing compounds pyrolysed below 500 °C. Nitrogen-containing compounds pyrolysed in a larger temperature range. One group of peats contained easily pyrolysable and the other group weakly pyrolysable nitrogen compounds. This suggests that the behaviour of fuel nitrogen in combustion will be difficult to predict because pyrolysis compounds may react further to corresponding oxides. The nitrogen content may be high in the tar in which case the tarry in termediates may also increase the amount of NO in flue gases. Infrared spectroscopy provided information about the decomposition of the main compounds in peat, like carbohydrates and long chained hydrocarbons during charring complementary to the information provided by elemental analyses. Keywords: pyrolysis. peat, air pollution.
  • Aho, Technical Research Centre of Finland,Domestic Fuel Laboratory,P.O. BOX 221,SF-40101 Jyväskylä,Finland. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Kaakkinen, Pekka Salminen. Soidensuojelun perusohjelman toteuttaminen.
English title: Basic plan for peatland nature conservation in Finland.
Avainsanat: peatland conservation; nature protection; management
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The Government of Finland has approved a basic plan for peatland preservation. About 600 mire sites have been proposed for conservation, covering an area of ca. 490 000 hectares. State-owned mires (70 % of the area in the programme) will be protected under the Nature Conservation Act of 1923 (71/23). The mires under other ownership will be acquired by the state for preservation purposes or protected by a decision of the provincial government concerned. A special management and land use plan is to be prepared for every protected peatland area which will be approved by the Ministry of Environment. Key words: peatland conservation, nature protection, management
  • Kaakkinen, Provincial government in Oulu, P.O. Box 293, SF-90101 Oulu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Salminen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Anneli Leivo, Ari Rajasärkkä. Suojeltujen soiden luontoselvitykset.
English title: Nature inven­tories on protected peatlands in Finland.
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In planning the management of Nature Protection Areas, including peatlands there is a need for exact inventories of their nature. The authorities, mainly National Board of Forestry, have made many vegetation mappings, bird censuses and other inventories on protected areas. However, there is much work to do before we know enough about the nature of these areas for planning purposes. The methodology of these inventories is at present developing.
  • Leivo, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Rajasärkkä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Stuart R. Gelder, Joan L. Brooks. Harvasukamatojen esiintymisesta rahkaturpeesta valmistetussa jäteveden suodattimessa.
English title: A preliminary study of the oligochaetes (Annelida) in a mature Sphagnum on-site wastewater treatment system.
Avainsanat: peat; oligochaetes; Annelida; wastewater treatment
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The earthworms Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus and unidentified juveniles were recovered from a stable, Sphagnum peat on-site wastewater treatment system studied at Orono, Maine, U.S.A. over a 13 month period. The oligochaetes had a heterogeneous distribution in the filter although they did show a preference for the mid and upper layers. The temperature and pH regimes in the filter did not appear to influence the distribution of the worms. Key words: peat, oligochaetes, Annelida, wastewater treatment
  • Gelder, Department of Biology, University of Maine, Presque Isle, Maine 04769,U.S.A Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Brooks, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Anneli Ylimartimo. Lapin kolmion lettoisista soista.
English title: The rich fens of the Lapland triangle region.
Avainsanat: fens; peatland drainage; endangered species; conservation
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The Lapland triangle region, located between the lower courses of the rivers Tornion-joki and Kemijoki in NW-Finland covers an area of 3500 km2. The region is renowed for its concentration of rich fen mire site types, including Campylium stellatum — Limprichtia intermedia — rich fens, eutrophic flark fens, eutrophic birch fens, eutrophic pine mires and eutrophic spruce mires. Peatlands cover about 60 % of the total land area of the region. By the end of the 1970's some 90 % of the area of rich fens had been drained and utilized for cultivation and forestry purposes and several plant species had become endangered. Although some 20 sites have been listed for conservation, enforcement so far has been very limited. Keywords: fens, peatland drainage, endangered species, conservation.
  • Ylimartimo, Department of Silviculture, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00I70, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Timo Tanninen. Soidensuojelualueiden hoidon ja käytön suunnittelu.
English title: Management of Finnish peatland conservation areas.
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All 102 peatland conservation areas in Finland are administrated by the National Board of Forestry. In most of these areas commercial forestry is forbidden by law only on the peatlands, but not on the surrounding mineral soil. The principles for the forestry use of the reserves are described in management plans, which are drawn up by the National Board of Forestry and confirmed by the Ministry of Environment. Accor-ding to these plans, the forestry use is adapted so as not to endanger the aims of the peatland conservation.
  • Tanninen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Raimo Heikkilä, Markku Löytönen. Havaintoja rahkasammallajeista ja niiden suhteista kasvillisuuteen ja ympäristötekijöihin Bromarvin Östanberg Stormossenilla.
English title: Observations on Sphagnum species and their rela­tion to vegetation and ecological factors in Östanberg Stormossen, southern Finland.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; mire vegetation; ecology; plateau bog; water content
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The relations between Sphagnum species, vegetation, and the macrotopographical and microtopographical environmental gradients of a plateau bog located on the southern coast of Finland were studied. A profile was levelled from the mire margin to the mire centre and 16 sample plots were located along the profile. The vegetation of each sample plot was described using coverage percentages. The mire water level, pH, and specific conductivity were measured for each plot. Samples of the capitula of different species of Sphagnum were taken and they were measured for water content. Hummock surfaces were predominant in the mire centre. The hollows were relatively dry ombrotrophic small sedge bogs. The mire margin fen was mostly mesotrophic. In the northern part of the mire there was also a eutrophic flark fen. In the mire centre the pH was 4 or less and the specific conductivity ranged from 10 to 25 µS/cm. In the mire margin fen the pH ranged from 4.7 to 5.7 and the specific conductivity was c. 50 µS/cm. The water content of the capitula of the Sphagna was in general high, ranging from 300 to 3000 %. In the hollows of the mire centre the water content of Sphagnum tenellum was as low as 15 %. Key words: mire vegetation, ecology, plateau bog, water content, Sphagnum.
  • Heikkilä, Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, Hallituskatu 11, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Löytönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Klaus Silfverberg, Jorma Issakainen. Turpeentuhkan vaikutuksesta puuston kasvuun ja ravinnetilaan käytännön lannoitustyömailla.
English title: Growth and foliar nutrients in peat-ash fertilized stands.
Avainsanat: peatland forestry; tree growth; ash-fertilization; phosphorus
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This study included growth and needle analysis in ash-fertilized spruce and pine stands near Oulu (65 °N, 26 °E). Most of these stands, totalling 770 measured trees, were on peat and fertilized in wintertime 1980 and 1981 as practical work with 40 m3/ha. By 1985 there was a clear increment of growth, especially in spruce stands, probably due to the great amount of phosphorus (375 kg/ha) applied. Keywords: peatland forestry, tree growth, ash-fertilization, phosphorus.
  • Silfverberg, Department of Peatland Forestry, The Finnish Forest Research Institu­te, Unioninkatu 40 A, 00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Issakainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Kerttu Härkönen. Suot Aaro Hellaakosken ja Einari Vuorelan runoudessa.
English title: Peat-lands as a source of inspiration in Finnish poetry.
Avainsanat: peatlands; Finnish literature
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The author cites examples and discusses the abundant occurrence of mires, peatlands, bogs etc. in the work of two esteemed Finnish poets, Aaro Hellaakoski (1893—1952) and Einari Vuorela (1889—1972). Keywords: peatlands, Finnish literature
  • Härkönen, PO.B. 233, 00121 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. Suonviljely ja soiden luonnonkasvien hyödyntäminen Neuvosto-Karjalassa.
English title: Use of mires for agricultural, berry and medical plant production in Soviet Karelia.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peatland utilization; berry production; medical plants; Soviet Union
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The utilization of mires and some recent research results carried out in Soviet Karelia (ASSR), USSR are discussed. There are 3.5 million ha of peatlands and 1.7 million ha of paludified forests. Some 78 000 ha of drained peatlands are used for cultivation of forage and vegetable crops and there are plans to increase this amount. Some 38 000 ha of virgin peatlands have been preserved for berry production (Vaccinium oxycoc-cos, Rubus chamaemorus). The cultivation of cranberry has also been studied. Karelian peatlands are also used as resources of medicinally important plants: e.g. Me-nyanthes trifoliata, Ledum palustre, Potentilla palustris, Droseraspp., Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Key words: peatland utilization, agriculture, berry production, medical plants, Soviet Union.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00I70 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Henry Schneider, Carl Johan Westman. Turpeen ravinteisuuden suhde pintakasvillisuuteen sararämeillä.
English title: Relation of peat nutrients to ground vegetation communities on sedge pine fens.
Avainsanat: peatland classification; peat nutrient contents; multivariate analysis
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Vegetation and peat nutrient data from 167 sample plots representing microsites on sedge pine fens are related. The plant data was analysed by two numerical multivariate methods: DECOR AN A-ordination and TWINSPAN-classification. The connection between the results of the numerical analyses and the surface peat nutrient contents is discussed. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium showed the closest relationship to those plant sociological variations that were interpreted as trophy-dependent. The variation in soil data within classes could not be diminished by using numerical classification methods instead of the Cajanderian peatland site type. Keywords: peatland classification, peat nutrient contents, multivariate analysis.
  • Schneider, Department of Peatland Forestry, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00I70, Finland. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Westman, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jukka-Pekka Jäppinen. Ojituksen ja lannoituksen vaikutukset sammalten typpi- ja fosforipitoisuuksiin kahdella suomuuttumalla.
English title: Effects of drainage and fertiliza­tion on nitrogen and phosphorus contents of mosses in two drained peatland forests.
Avainsanat: drained peatlands; bryophytes; fertilization; nitrogen; phosphorus.
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The short-term effects of wood ash, PK and NPK fertilizers on total N and P contents of various mosses at an old drainage area in eastern Finland are studied. Total N contents increased after NPK treatment and total P contents increased after treatments that contained phosphorus (NPK, PK, wood ash). N contents of some mosses also increased after treatments which did not contain any nitrogen (PK and wood ash). On these plots drainage and obviously the fertilizer treatment fastened the decomposition rate of the peat and at the same time the mobilization of the nutrients. On the control plots (no fertilization) the N contents of the mosses did not differ statistically between the years in either of the study sites. The P contents of some mosses decreased on the control plots of the spruce swamp. One reason for this was apparently the level of the ground water, which did not lower so much in the spruce swamp than in the pine mire, and so the mobilization of the nutrients remained smaller. The observed nutrient contents of the peat mosses were much smaller than those of the forest mosses and the nutrient contents were also smaller at pine mire than at spruce swamp. Keywords: bryophytes, fertilization, drained peatlands, nitrogen, phosphorus.
  • Jäppinen, University of Joensuu. Department of Biology. P.O. Box 111, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jeff Rengo. Soiden kaytöstä Minnesotassa (USA).
English title: The utilization of peatlands in Minnesota (USA).
Avainsanat: peatland utilization; Minnesota; peat utilization
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Minnesota's peatland resources are described, and their historical, current, and prospective uses are reviewed. Minnesota has a large peat resource that has not been intensively utilized. The state government actively encourages both the industrial development of peatlands and the preservation of significant natural peatlands. Future peatland utilization in Minnesota will probably not be monopolized by a single use, for example, traditional fuel peat production. Key words: Minnesota, peatland utilization, peat utilization.
  • Rengo, Center for Environmental Studies, Bemidji State University, Bemidji, Min­nesota 55601, USA: and Department of Botany, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Veikko Salonen. Kasvillisuuden uusiutumisesta turvetuotantoa varten raivatulla alueella Ähtärin Mustasuolla.
English title: Revegetation of an area of Mustasuo-mire after clearing for peat harvesting.
Avainsanat: peat harvesting; revegetation; vegetation structure
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The structure of the vegetation in an area abandoned 13 years ago after clearing for fuel peat production was investigated in Ähtäri, Finland. The vegetation consisted of 13 plant species, all of which were typical bog-species. The average above ground dry weight biomass for the whole vegetation was 240 g/m2. The proportions of the total biomass for the shrub layer, field layer and ground layer were 46 %, 38 % and 16 %, respectively. In the field layer 78 % of the total biomass was formed by woody species. Polytrichum strictum formed 99,6 % of the total biomass of the ground layer. Revegetation had occurred unevenly; large openings with no plant cover were found, especially in the middle of the strips. Keywords: peat harvesting, revegetation, vegetation structure
  • Salonen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology, Yliopistonkatu 9, SF-40100 Jyväskylä, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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