Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'pollution'

Hala Rifaat. Tiivistelmä.
English title: Bacterial Quality of River Nile Water at Cairo Region in Egypt.
Avainsanat: water pollution; Bacteria; taxonomy; coliform
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The aim of is study was to elucidate the bacterial quality of the River Nile water at Cairo region in Egypt. The microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria and faecal coliforms were examined. The bacterial isolates were identified using different keys of identification and Biolog metabolic fingerprint system. The results showed the presence of different genera of microorganisms, which were. Alcaligenes, Escherichia, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Rahnella, Xanthobacter, Streptomyces, Rhodococcus and Arthrobacter. The significance of the results was shortly discussed.
  • Rifaat, Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Tapani Sallantaus, Harri Vasander, Jukka Laine. Metsätalouden vesistöhaittojen torjuminen ojitetuista soista muodostettujen puskurivyöhykkeiden avulla.
English title: Prevention of detrimental impacts of forestry operations on water bodies using buffer zones created from drained peatlands.
Avainsanat: peatland drainage; load; restoration; water pollution
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Before large-scale drainage, the outflowing water from forests was naturally filtered through peatlands. The even topography, dense moss cover and the favourable physical, chemical and biological properties of surface peat facilitate versatile buffering functions in these systems. In addition to retaining suspended solids, peatlands may act as traps for nutrients or harmful metals. Major part of these buffering systems have been lost as a result of forestry drainage. Restoring drained peatlands, being potentially well suited to act as a buffer zone between forestry land and a watercourse, is the major reason for rewetting outside nature reserves. Potentially each drainage area should include a restored part through which waters both from the drainage area itself and from the surrounding upland forest catchment would be filtered. Preliminary results from three experimental catchments show that buffer zones restored from drained peatlands may be succesfully used in decreasing the detrimental impacts forestry operations may have on adjacent water courses. Long-term monitoring is, however, required for the quantitative assessment of the buffer efficiency.
  • Sallantaus, Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, P.O.Box 297, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Laine, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Edgar Karofeld. Emäksisen tuhkalaskeuman vaikutus rahkasammaliin Niinsaarensuolla Koillis-Virossa.
English title: The effects of alkaline fly ash precipitation on the Sphagnum mosses in Niinsaare bog, NE Estonia.
Avainsanat: atmospheric pollution; degeneration and recurrence of Sphagna; ombrotrophic mire
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In north-east Estonia the precipitation of calcium-rich strongly alkaline fly ash from thermal power stations has caused significant changes in the local ombrotrophic mires. Sphagnum mosses disappeared from Niinsaare bog during the 1970s in the period of the highest air pollution. Their disappearance was probably caused mainly by the combination of high pH values and an increased concentration of calcium in the bog water. In Niinsaare bog, the present mean pH value of bog water is 5.3 ± 0.6 and the mean calcium concentration 11.6 ± 1.6 mg l-1, compared with 3.7 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 mg l-1 in the uncontaminated Nigula bog respectively. During the last decade, following the reduction of fly ash emission, the Sphagnum mosses started to reappear in Niinsaare bog. Nine Sphagnum patches dominated mainly by S. angustifolium, S. fallax and S. magellanicum were studied from June 1991 to September 1995. During one year, the distance between the centre and edges of these patches increased on an average by 5.1 ± 2.7 cm and the area by 29 ± 21.5 %. This indicates that the degeneration of Sphagna in NE Estonian bogs is not yet irreversible and, by reducing the air pollution in long term, the restoration of Sphagnum carpet is possible. Key words: atmospheric pollution, degeneration and recurrence of Sphagna, ombrotrophic mire.
  • Karofeld, Institute of Ecology, Kevade Str. 2, EE0001 Tallinn, Estonia Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
T. Viraraghavan, G. N. Mathavan. Öljyn poisto turvesuodattimella.
English title: Oil removal using peat filters.
Avainsanat: peat; Adsorption; filtration; oil-in-water emulsion; oil pollution
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The use of peat for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions is gaining attention as a simple, economical means of environmental protection. The horticultural peat produced by Premier Peat Company Limited was assessed for its potential in removing oil from five representative oil-in-water emulsions of different stabilities. The emulsions were passed through a 300 mm peat filter bed at a flow rate of 12, 48 and 300 ml/min. Each test was conducted for 8 hours of continuous filter run. The results indicated that an average oil removal efficiency ranging from 34 to 99% can be obtained in a peat filter depending upon the flow rate and the type of oil-in-water emulsions. Key words: Adsorption, filtration, oil-in-water emulsion, oil pollution, peat
  • Viraraghavan, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, S4S OA2 Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mathavan, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Martti Aho. Turpeen pyrolyysistä.
English title: Pyrolysis of peat.
Avainsanat: air pollution; pyrolysis. peat
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The release of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in peat pyrolysis was investigated bet ween 300 and 700 °C. Seven peats with different nitrogen and sulphur contents (N: 0.8—2.9 %, S: 0.08—0.24 %) were studied. The pyrolysis was studied indirectly by following the elemental composition and the structure of the char residue. The tars of one peat sample were trapped. The greatest portion of the sulphur-containing compounds pyrolysed below 500 °C. Nitrogen-containing compounds pyrolysed in a larger temperature range. One group of peats contained easily pyrolysable and the other group weakly pyrolysable nitrogen compounds. This suggests that the behaviour of fuel nitrogen in combustion will be difficult to predict because pyrolysis compounds may react further to corresponding oxides. The nitrogen content may be high in the tar in which case the tarry in termediates may also increase the amount of NO in flue gases. Infrared spectroscopy provided information about the decomposition of the main compounds in peat, like carbohydrates and long chained hydrocarbons during charring complementary to the information provided by elemental analyses. Keywords: pyrolysis. peat, air pollution.
  • Aho, Technical Research Centre of Finland,Domestic Fuel Laboratory,P.O. BOX 221,SF-40101 Jyväskylä,Finland. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Harri Vasander, Jorma Mikkola. Sammalpallomenetelmä lyijysulaton päästöjen tutkimuksessa.
English title: Monitoring lead emissions with moss bags near a lead smelter in southern Finland.
Avainsanat: air pollution; lead; monitoring; moss bags; Sphagnum
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Moss (Sphagnum) bags were used to study the deposition of lead near a lead smelter in Vantaa, southern Finland, during 1983—1986. Pit-furnace and refining smelting were carried out. However, in March 1984 pit-furnace smelting ceased. The content of lead in moss bags increased clearly with decreasing distance from the source. The values were clearly smaller after the change in smelting process. Besides the moss bag method we also compared moss bags with other methods (deposition, suspended particles, snow sampling). There existed highly significant correlations between moss bag and other methods. The moss bag method enables a dense monitoring net and was found to be a rapid, easy and inexpensive way of monitoring the intensity and distribution of lead pollution. Key words: lead, air pollution, monitoring, moss bags, Sphagnum.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mikkola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Raili Vesterinen. Puuta ja turvetta käyttävien lämpölaitosten päästöt.
English title: Emissions from wood and peat-fired heating plants.
Avainsanat: emissions; air pollution; wood firing; peat firing; combustion process.
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The use of wood and peat in small scale boilers (10 kW—10 MW), has increased because the price of oil has advanced. Further the acidification of environment caused by emissions of sulphur oxides has increased. Wood and peat with their small sulphur content are good fuels in this respect. Emissions of sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are not too high during good combustion process. If wood and peat is burnt in plants (1—10 MW), emissions of hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are low. High emissions of tar, total hydrocarbon and PAH have been measured from combustion of wood and peat in small furnaces. The development of boilers to correspond better the properties of the fuels used may decrease significantly these emissions. Also the complete control of the whole combustion process helps to the emissions. The dust emissions of small plants can be decreased with flue gas collectors. The multicyclone has generally been used as the collector in this scale. Emissions of some metals depend on the fly ash separation efficiency. Key words: emissions, air pollution, wood firing, peat firing, combustion process.
  • Vesterinen, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Domestic Fuel Laboratory, P.O. Box 221, SF-40101 Jyväskylä, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Mohamed M. El Bouraie, Eman A. Motawea, Gehad G. Mohamed, Mohamed M. Yehia. Jokiveden laatu Rosettan haarassa Niilin suistossa Egyptissä.
English title: Water quality of Rosetta branch in Nile delta, Egypt.
Original keywords: jokivesi; virtaama; kuormitus; El-Rahawy
English keywords: water pollution; river water; stream flow; El-Rahawy drain
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Rosetta branch is one of the two main branches in Nile delta and El-Rahawy drain is one of this main sources, which outlet on the branch. It is subjected to many sources of pollutions from municipalities, agriculture and industry, but only little information is available on the quality of river water. The aim of this study was to analyze the river water quality in Rosetta branch at the outlet of El-Rahawy drain, Nile delta. Water samples were collected seasonally from El-Rahawy and Rosetta branch and the following physicochemical parameters were analyzed: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia (NH3), total alkalinity (CO3+HCO3); biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results were compared with the water quality standards of Egypt (Law 48/1982), FAO and Canadian Water Quality standards (CWQGs). Statistical studies were carried out by calculating correlation coefficients between different parameters. The large transports of NH3, and TDS with low COD, BOD and DO values along El-Rahawy drain were seriously deteriorating the water quality in the downstream of Rosetta branch, especially during the low flow condition in winter.
  • El Bouraie, Mohamed M. El Bouraie, Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Cairo, Egypt, email: Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Motawea, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Mohamed, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Yehia, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Mohamed M. El Bouraie, Ahmed A. El, Mohamed Yehia, Eman A. Motawea. Raskasmetallipitoisuudet jokivedessä ja pohjasedimenteissä Niilin suistossa Egyptissä.
English title: Heavy metal concentrations in surface river water and bed sediments at Nile Delta in Egypt.
Avainsanat: water quality; River Nile; Nile Delta; Rosetta Branch; surface water; bed sediment; heavy metal; concentration; pollution
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Rosetta Branch of river Nile is subjected to severe pollutants of domestic, sewage, agricultural and industrial pollution. In this study, the distribution of heavy metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in surface river water and the bed sediments of Rosetta Branch and the impacts of heavy metals on the water quality were monitored. The heavy metal concentrations in river water and their contents in the bed sediments were studied three times before, during and after winter period (low flow conditions) from August 2007 to April 2008. The heavy metal concentrations in the river sediments were remarkably high, but varied among sampling points, and the concentrations in water were mainly within the permissible limits. The heavy metal contents in bed sediment were highest during closure of winter period. Attention should be paid to mitigate element mobilization from sediments as their effects may become significant during seasons and years of low water flow in the river. Constant monitoring of the Nile river water quality is needed to record any alteration in the quality and mitigate outbreak of health disorders and the detrimental impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.
  • El Bouraie, Mohamed M. El Bouraie, Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Cairo, Egypt, email: Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • El, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Yehia, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Motawea, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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