Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'production'

Juha Laitila, Kari Väätäinen, Antti Asikainen. Runko- ja juuripuun sekä latvusmassan yhdistelmä- ja erilliskorjuu ojitetuissa suometsissä.
English title: Comparison of two harvesting methods for complete tree removal on tree stands on drained peatlands.
Avainsanat: clear cutting; complete tree harvesting; fuel wood chips; integrated harvesting; peat production; productivity; single-grip harvester; stump lifting; time consumption models
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This case study represents a novel complete wood biomass harvesting method for woody peatlands, which are to be prepared for peat production for energy use. The productivity and cost-efficiency of complete tree harvesting in a peatland forest dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was examined in this study. In complete tree harvesting, a single-grip harvester lifts a whole tree with its roots from the ground and divides the tree into stump and stem part sections by cross-cutting. This work method was compared to the conventional harvesting method, wherein the stem wood and stump wood are harvested in separate operations with different machines. The work study was conducted for complete tree cutting and conventional tree cutting by a single-grip harvester. In total there were 97.6 solid cubic metres (m³) of wood harvested in the study. The harvesting cost of the extracted wood (stump section, stem wood and crown mass) to the road side landing was calculated for both harvesting methods by using time study models of cutting obtained from this study and the separate stump lifting and biomass forwarding models acquired from the literature. According to the results, the complete tree harvesting was cost-competitive to conventional harvesting (including stem wood, crown mass and stump extraction) when the breast height diameter of the trees to be removed was below the range of 16–20 cm.
  • Laitila, Metsäntutkimuslaitos, PL 68, 80101 Joensuu Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Väätäinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Asikainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Ulrike Bosse, Peter Frenzel. Metaanivuo länsi-siperialaiselta suolta.
English title: CH4 emissions from a West Siberian mire.
Avainsanat: Siberia; CH4 emission; CH4 oxidation; CH4 production
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Northern wetlands are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH4. We studied CH4 turnover in an oligotrophic mire near the Yenisej River in West Siberia in July 1996. CH4 emissions were determined using closed chambers. CH4 production and CH4 oxidation potentials were estimated from flask incubations. Mean CH4 emissions from lawn and mudbottoms were 117±19 mg m–2 d–1 (SE; n=47). CH4 concentrations, CH4 production and CH4 oxidation potentials in lawn samples were high, indicating that CH4 oxidation might be important in controlling CH4 emissions from this mire. Ridges showed low values in all parameters including CH4 emissions. The area-weighted estimate for the mire was 80 mg m–2 d–1, which makes this an area of medium to high CH4 emission. For the surrounding pine forest soil, a CH4 sink of about –1 mg m–2 d–1 was estimated, a value similar to that in other boreal forest soils. The area-weighted estimate for ca. 360 km2 of mire and forest around the site was a CH4 emission of at least 25 mg CH4 m–2 d–1 during summertime.
  • Bosse, Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Frenzel, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jyrki Hytönen. Lannoitemaaran vaikutus lyhytkiertoviljelmien ravinnetilaan ja biomassatuotokseen suonpohjilla.
English title: Effect of fertilizer application rate on nutrient status and biomass production in short-rotation plantations of willows on cut­away peatland areas.
Avainsanat: fertilization; biomass production; cut-away peatland; energy forestry; Salix
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The effects of N, P and K fertilizer application rates on the biomass production, soil properties and foliar nutrient status were studied in willow plantations (Salix x dasyclados, Salix 'Aquatica') established on cut-away peatland areas at Haapavesi (64 06'N, 25 36'E and Ruukki (64'27'N, 25 26'E). When the amount of one of the nutrients in NPK-fertilization was changed (N 0-200 kg/ha, P 0-60 kg/ha, K 0-80 kg/ha) the others remained unchanged (N 100, P 30, K 40 kg/ha). Three field experiments were made. Increasing phosphorus and potassium application rates increased the concentrations of corresponding soil extractable nutrients. There was a positive correlation between the fertilizer application rate and the concentrations of foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. During the first growing season, the effect of nitrogen fertilization on biomass production was modest, but during the second growing season the yield of willows increased the most when fertilized with 100-150 kg N/ha. Although phosphorus fertilization increased yields, already the smallest amounts (15 kg/ha) resulted in biomass yields as high when applying the largest phosphorus fertilizer amounts (60 kg/ha). Potassium fertilization did not increase biomass production in any of the experiments. The highest total biomass yields after three growing seasons were 28-30 t/ha. Their compositions were as follows: 44% wood, 18% bark, 17% foliage, 16% roots, and 5% stumpwood. Key words: biomass production, cut-away peatland, fertilization, energy forestry, Salix
  • Hytönen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, Box 44, FIN-69J 01 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Ingvar Sundh, Mats Nilsson, Bo H. Svensson. Depth distribution of methane production and oxidation in a Sphagnum peat bog.
Avainsanat: peatlands; Carbon flow; methane oxidation; methane production
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The anaerobic production and potential aerobic oxidation of methane were assessed in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in Sweden. Peat from four depths in the 0-40 cm (below the vegetation surface) layer was collected in three different plant communities. The rate measurements were made with peat slurries in flasks. The ratio between the mean production and mean oxidation activities was more than ten-fold higher in the two wetter than in the driest community. The within profiles depth distributions of methanogenic and methane-oxidizing activity were similar, showing that a particular level may act as a net source or a net sink for methane, depending on prevailing environmental conditions (primarily the oxygen distribution). The results also suggest that methane production and consumption processes can occur in anaerobic and aerobic micro-zones in very close proximity to each other. Key words: Carbon flow, methane oxidation, methane production, peatlands
  • Sundh, Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Nilsson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Svensson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Timo Saarinen, Kimmo Tolonen, Harri Vasander. Use of 14C labelling to measure below-ground biomass of mire plants.
Avainsanat: production; peatlands; root biomass
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Below-ground biomass of dominating vascular plants on a mesotrophic fen and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog was estimated using 14C labelling techniques. Preliminary results show that up to 90% of living biomass of Carex rostrata growing on the fen may be located below ground. Fine roots form the majority of below-ground biomass. Keywords: Peatlands, production, root biomass
  • Saarinen, Department of Botany, Laboratories of Ecology, P.O. Box 4, FIN-00014University of Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tolonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jyrki Jauhiainen, Harri Vasander, Jouko Silvola. Differences in response of two Sphagnum species to elevated CO2 and nitrogen input.
Avainsanat: production; peatlands; climate change; Bryophyte ecology
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Cushions of Sphagnum fuscum and S. angustifolium were grown in the laboratory in four different C02 concentrations (350, 700, 1 000, and 2 000 ppm) and N deposition levels (0, 10, 30, and 100 kg ha-1 a-1). The same N deposition levels were also applied in the field. C02 concentration increased both the shoot density and dry mass of S. fuscum but decreased the length increment. There was no net effect on production. For S. angustifolium, shoot density did not alter with elevated C02 con-centration but the C02 induced increment in dry mass and length caused increased production. S. angustifolium suffered from nutrient deficiency on the 0 kg N ha-1a-1 treatment and S. fuscum had difficulties to survive at the heaviest N load. No clear trends in length increment or cover was noticed in the field study during the first year. Keywords: Bryophyte ecology, climate change, peatlands, production
  • Jauhiainen, University of Joensuu, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80I0I Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Silvola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Leena Finér, Jukka Laine, Leena Halko. Fine root dynamics on two drained peatland sites.
Avainsanat: production; Drainage; Pinus sylvestris; Biomass; ground vegetation; necromass
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Total fine root biomass was 397 g/m2 at an afforested and fertilized tall sedge fen (VSN), and 529 g/m2 at a tall sedge pine fen (VSR). The studied sites were located on the Lakkasuo mire complex in central Finland. The greater biomass on the VSR site could be a result of its lower nutrient status compared to that of the fertilized VSN site. Total root production during May-September 1991 was 178 g/m2 at the VSN site and 242 g/m2 at the VSR site when all significant increments in the living and dead root biomasses were summed up. Almost half of the fine root biomass was renewed during the summer. Keywords: Biomass, drainage, ground vegetation, necromass, Pinus sylvestris, production
  • Finér, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Laine, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Halko, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Machteld C. Dierendock. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; peatland; Meta-analysis; primary production
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Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S.fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean = 339 g m-2 a-1). Over 90% of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50%. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence on primary production of a doubling of rainfall over a 50-year period. Keywords: Meta-analysis, peatland, primary production, Sphagnum
  • Dierendock, Hugo de Vries Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, J 098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hans Persson. Factors affecting fine root dynamics of trees.
Avainsanat: fertilization; Carbon budget; fine root production; liming; minirhizotron; mycorrhiza; root tip; soil temperature; soil water
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Perhaps the most important function of the fine root system of forest trees is in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. To perform this function adequately, the root system must be extensive and active enough to meet the needs of the canopy. Literature indicates that fine root production is substantial and that the seasonal pattern of fine root production is different from that of foliage production. Carbon incorporation into the soil in the form of dead roots is an important pathway in the total carbon flow through forest ecosystems. Root growth is sensitive to various climatic factors which are often imposed or strengthened by human activities. Factors that lead to growth suspension may or may not be the same as those that result in root shedding or senescence. The use of minirhizo-trons to study fine root dynamics means that ecologists are no longer justified in claiming that below-ground production is impossible to quantify in forest ecosystems. Keywords: Carbon budget, fine root production, liming, fertilization, minirhizotron, mycorrhiza, root tip, soil temperature, soil water
  • Persson, Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. Suonviljely ja soiden luonnonkasvien hyödyntäminen Neuvosto-Karjalassa.
English title: Use of mires for agricultural, berry and medical plant production in Soviet Karelia.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peatland utilization; berry production; medical plants; Soviet Union
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The utilization of mires and some recent research results carried out in Soviet Karelia (ASSR), USSR are discussed. There are 3.5 million ha of peatlands and 1.7 million ha of paludified forests. Some 78 000 ha of drained peatlands are used for cultivation of forage and vegetable crops and there are plans to increase this amount. Some 38 000 ha of virgin peatlands have been preserved for berry production (Vaccinium oxycoc-cos, Rubus chamaemorus). The cultivation of cranberry has also been studied. Karelian peatlands are also used as resources of medicinally important plants: e.g. Me-nyanthes trifoliata, Ledum palustre, Potentilla palustris, Droseraspp., Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Key words: peatland utilization, agriculture, berry production, medical plants, Soviet Union.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00I70 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Erkki Eilavaara. Turpeen pientuotannon kartoitus.
English title: Inventatory of small-scale peat production.
Avainsanat: peat; production; technology
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The small-scale production of sod peat in Finland is, generally, production on farms for their own use. According to two postal questionnaires made by the Forestry Department of the Work Efficiency Association there were, in Finland, in 1980 77 and in 1984 136 small producers of sod peat. In the questionnaires, the production technology, economy, availability, conditions, areas and quantities of small-scale producers were identified. According to the questionnaires peat production on farms is mainly practised by using the farm's own labour and on their own or a hired production area. The larger part of small-scale production of peat is production of sod peat. Other peat products produced on farms are milled peat, agricultural peat and horticultural peat. Keywords: peat, production, technology.
  • Eilavaara, University of Helsinki, Department of Logging and Utilization of Forest Products, Unioninkatu 40 B SF-00170 Helsinki Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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